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Key Technologies Enabling Autonomous Driving
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Key Technologies Enabling Autonomous Driving

Autonomous driving normally refers to self-driving vehicles or transport systems that move without human intervention. Developing an autonomous vehicle involves three main elements: Perception, decision-making (some define it as planning) and action (some define it as control).


The perception system, encompassing environment perception system and positioning estimation system, is basic as well as crucial to autonomous driving. Sensors are the key hardware of the perception system, serving as the eyes and ears of an autonomous vehicle (AV). There are mainly three types of sensors applied for autonomous driving, namely camera, radar, and LiDAR.


Camera V.S. Radar V.S. LiDAR

Topic

Camera

Radar

LiDAR

Resolution

High

Low

Medium

Weather resistance

Medium

High

Low

Object speed tracking

Medium

High

Medium

Object height tracking

Medium

Low

High

Object ranging

Low

High

High

Object distinguishing

High

Low

High

Cost

Low

Medium

High



C-V2X Communication: Enabling Non-Line-of-Sight Coverage

Camera, radar and LiDAR are "line-of-sight" technologies, while V2X communication can broaden the vehicle's line-of-sight to blind spots and even 1000 meters beyond. Vehicles can then communicate with other vehicles, traffic lights, digital road signs and pedestrians even when they are out of direct line-of-sight.

V2X applications require very low latency and high reliability in order to support real-time communication. C-V2X, with super-fast 5G communication capacity, is the connectivity foundation of autonomous driving. With ultra-low latency and high data rate, it enables real-time communication with surroundings to supplement non-line-of-sight information, which improves driving safety and efficiency. And unlike camera and LiDAR, it can work in all-weather condition, enhancing reliability of autonomous driving.