As one of the basic technologies of autonomous driving, Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) at present days are in its initial phase where only simple applications such as real-time navigation, access to infotainment system and emergency services can be deployed. The arrival of 5G era broadens our imagination towards autonomous driving, and the combination of 5G and V2X (referred to “5G C-V2X” or “C-V2X” hereafter) significantly extend the V2X application scenarios.
One of the main goal of V2X deployment is to improve road safety. Latency in data transmission will lead to delay in action taken, which may then result in serious car crashes. Therefore, to ensure road safety, latency should be as short as possible. Compared with 4G, 5G network is much speedy in communication, and is capable of transmitting large-amount data from end-to-end within 1 millisecond. 5G C-V2X delivers large bandwidth, super-high reliability and ultra-low latency to enable seamless connection among vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and cloud.
Compared with DSRC, 5G C-V2X has larger communication range, better Non-Light-of-Sight performance, enhanced reliability and cost efficiency. In October 2018, the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA), a global cross-industry organization of companies from the automotive, technology and telecommunications industries, released a test report comparing the performance of C-V2X and DSRC-based V2X. The tests showed that C-V2X significantly outperformed DSRC in reliability and interference.
Table 1: Relative performance of C-V2X and DSRC
Lab Cabled Tx and Rx Tests
Field Line-of-Sight (LOS) Range Tests
Field Non-Line-of-Sight Range Tests
Lab Cabled Test with Simulated Co-channel Interference
Lab Cabled Near-Far Test
Field Co-existence with Wi-Fi 80 MHz Bandwidth in UNII-3
Field Co-existing of V2X with Adjacent DSRC Carrier
Lab Cabled Congestion Control
Without 5G network, V2X would merely be a brilliant idea. 5G network is enabling V2X communication, making it an effective supplement of autonomous driving. It is believed that with the continuous development and upgrading of 5G C-V2X technology, fully autonomous driving (Level 5) is a mission possible in the near future.